Are you planning to visit Perú? Perú is one of the most beautiful destinations in the world. That is why thousands of tourists book vacation packages in Perú and visit this magnificent colorful country, which has unforgettable places full of traditions. In fact, Machu Picchu is one of the New 7 Wonders of the World and is located in Cusco, Peru.
The Peruvian people are made up of different races, for example, mestizo (most Peruvians have this Race) which is a mixture of Amerindians and Peruvians of European, African, Japanese, Chinese descent.
Peruvian music is a mix of sound and style. There are many genres of Peruvian music: These can be classified into music and dances from the Peruvian coast and also the Peruvian and Amazonian highlands. Harps, lutes, guitars, bandurrias, vihuelas, etc., are some of the variety of instruments used in Peruvian music. Peru has a great variety of musical styles such as Creole music, African music, huayno, cumbia, rock, etc. They also have a large number of typical dances that have an association with agricultural work, hunting and warfare, apart from those dances of native origin. Peru is home to one of the most varied folk legacies in the world, part of rhythms and rituals Peruvian music has a legacy of more than 3,000 folk festivals, 1,500 musical performances and countless arts and crafts.
Another important factor in Peruvian culture is the literature produced from pre-Hispanic traditions to the present, in different languages ??and media. Some of the important writers are Ricardo Palma, César Vallejo, Alfredo Bryce Echenique, José María Arguedas, Mario Vargas Llosa, others.
Perú is a religious country, religion has played a vital role in the social and cultural development of societies since its origins in the Andes, through the political and cultural formation of pre-Hispanic Andean societies, and finally, the religious transformation Following the fall of the Inca Empire and the conquest of power by the Spanish, who imposed Catholicism. In Peru the Christian religion predominates and Catholicism in particular.
Tourism is also considered as part of the Peruvian culture. In Peru it is the third largest industry in the nation, behind fishing and mining. Tourism targets archaeological monuments, since it has more than one hundred thousand archaeological sites, ecotourism in the Peruvian Amazon, cultural tourism in colonial cities, gastronomic tourism, adventure tourism and beach tourism. According to a study carried out by the government of Peru, the satisfaction rate of tourists after visiting Peru is 94%. It is the fastest growing industry in Peru, growing at an annual rate of 25% during the last five years, with a higher growth rate than any other country in South America.
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Facts about Perú Culture
Here we share some facts about Perú culture:
- Peru is the third largest country in South America, behind Brazil and Argentina. It has a territory of: 1,285,216 km².
- The word “Peru” comes from a Panamanian tribe called “Biru”.
- Cusco means “Navel of the world”. This department was the capital of the Inca Empire until the arrival of the Spanish. In 1983 it was declared a Historical Heritage of Humanity.
- The Nazca lines are one of the curiosities of our country. They are a set of figures drawn in the desert of southern Peru. They are 1,500 meters long, so to see them clearly, you need to fly over them.
- The Viringo, or better known as “Peruvian dog” is a breed of dog native to Peru and is part of the Peruvian National Heritage. This breed of dog does not have hair.
- Peru is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. This is because it has three regions: coast, mountains and jungle, which allows the existence of a wide variety of flora and fauna. Furthermore, in our countries there are around 90 microclimates.
- There are more than 100,000 archaeological sites in Peru. Twelve of them are considered by UNESCO as historical heritage of humanity. Some of them are: Chan Chan, Sacsayhuamán, Kuélap and Huaca de la Luna.
- The potato is a tuber of Peruvian origin. In Peru, more than 3,000 different varieties of potato are grown, which is why Peru is considered the first country in potato biodiversity.
- In the department of Arequipa is the Cotahuasi Canyon. It is one of the deepest in the world, even twice as deep as the famous Grand Canyon in the United States.
- In Peru is the oldest civilization in America. It is Caral, located 200 kilometers north of the city of Lima.
Food Culture in Perú
The food culture in Perú is one of the most diverse and rich in the world. It combines Spanish, African, Chinese, Japanese, French, Italian cuisine, among others, with the natural wealth of our country.
The Peruvian mines are among the most important in the world. Peru is rich in gold and zinc.
Peru is one of the main cotton producers. The most appreciated Peruvian fiber is pima cotton, of great quality and resistance, with a long and fine thread.
The food culture in Perú is the most diverse in the world, it has the largest number of dishes in the world, 4911 in total. Peruvian cuisine is a fusion of the culinary tradition of ancient Peru with Spanish cuisine. Later, this mix was influenced by the culinary traditions and customs of French chefs who fled the revolution in their country to settle in the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Another crucial aspect was the influence of 19th century immigration, which includes Cantonese Chinese, Japanese and Italian, among other mainly European origins.
Peru is famous throughout South America for its food. As a leading fishing nation, fish is abundant, and imaginatively prepared.
The main ingredients found in almost all Peruvian dishes are rice, a variety of potatoes, pork, lamb, and fish. Most of these foods include one of the different types of “ají”, or Peruvian chili, which are mainly: yellow chili, red chili, red pepper, rocoto.
Chicken, pork and lamb were introduced to Peru 500 years ago, when the Spanish arrived in America. Other ingredients, such as potatoes, were already established because they grow in the Peruvian Andes and were brought by the Spanish to Europe.
Among the most representative dishes are Ceviche, Cuy chactado, Anticuchos, Tacacho, Juane, Papa a la huancaína, ají de gallina, Rocoto Relleno, on sweet dishes and desserts are Alfajores, Nougat, picarones, purple mazamorra, etc. Drinks are Chicha Morada and obviously Pisco, the national drink.
Clothing Culture in Perú
We know that Peru has thousands of dances and clothes which and now we show you the clothing culture in Perú.
Clothing culture in theCoast of Perú
In Morropón, a city in the North of Peru, located in the department of Piura, they use this costume to dance the Tondero, a typical dance that is very happy and beautiful.
The fustán is white and with embroidered strips. The skirt, which is called “saya” or “skirt”, can be black or white. The blouse or nightgown or vest is made of silk and of very bright colors.
The earrings are called “sleepers” and they always adorn the braid with natural flowers. The most beautiful of all is the shawl or “milk cloth” that men wear and it is handmade and made of pure cotton.
Clothing culture in theAndes of Perú
In the Sierra of our country, women often wear shoulder cloths, which are rectangular pieces of hand-woven cloth. It is a traditional part and this manda is placed on the shoulders and immobilized by passing it over the forehead and tying it in the front of the chest.
Women also used to have handmade barrettes called “tupu” or tupo “and they used to be decorated with precious stones. The shoulder cloths used by women are called: lliclla, k’eperina, awayu and unkuna and are differentiated by the following:
- Llicla is a very common men’s cloth that is used in the villages.
- K’eperina is a large cloth that is often used to carry babies and goods to transport them from one place to another.
- Awayu is similar to lliclla but is larger and knotted and is also used to carry babies and goods.
- Unkuna is also a carrying cloth, but smaller and used to carry food.
Clothing culture in theJungle of Perú
The Shipibo girls, an ethnic group from the Amazon, wear very light costumes because the jungle is always very hot.Their skirts are beautiful, with designs painted by their own moms: a labyrinth of geometric lines that, according to their ancestors, represented snakes. Their blouses are in very cheerful colors: fuchsia or yellow for example and on their heads they wear a headband that they embroider with beads and decorate with parrot or macaw feathers.
Cultural Customs of Perú
Perú is a country rich in culture, customs and ancestral traditions, some remaining intact and others showing changes over the years. These have survived thanks to the importance they had for the ancient Peruvians, who instilled them and allowed them to be transmitted from generation to generation.
Cultural Customs and Festivities of Perú
Festival of the Virgin of Candelaria
Held in the city of Puno, department of Puno, on the shores of the famous Lake Titicaca. It begins every February 2 with the celebration of masses and processions to the Virgen de la Candelaria. During the festivity, folk dance contests are held where participants present colorful costumes.
Lord of Miracles
The religious festival of the Lord of Miracles, is celebrated in the month of October or ‘purple month’ and brings together the largest number of faithful in South America. History tells that when the image was painted in colonial times, there were innumerable earthquakes and attempts to erase it, however, it always remained intact. It is tradition that thousands of parishioners dressed in purple robes worship the miraculous image.
Virgin of the Door
Held in the department of La Libertad, in the month of December. The exit from the churches of the so-called ‘Mamita of the Holy Door of the sick and helpless’, is a spectacular tradition since it descends from the top of the temple by means of an artifice and is then carried in a procession. The Virgin of the Door is characteristic for its long robes and precious jewels.
Named ´La Fiesta del Sol´, since it coincides with the winter solstice. It is an ancient celebration whose purpose is to pay homage to the Sun god, the supreme symbol of worship in the Inca culture. Currently, it is performed in a theatrical representation every June 24, on the esplanade of Sacsayhuamán. For the staging of the Inti Raymi a script is followed that includes the simulation of the sacrifice of two llamas, which according to beliefs serves to predict the future. After this ritual, the Inca ceremony is carried out in the main square of Cusco, so that its government does a good job. Next step and at sunset, the ceremony ends and the festivities begin.
Held in February, mainly in the departments of Cajamarca, Puno, Ayacucho, Apurímac, San Martín and Tacna; Peruvian carnivals stand out for their color and for the participation of their inhabitants. It is a tradition to knock down the yunza, which consists of planting an artificial tree loaded with gifts and dancing around it until it is knocked down with the cuts of a machete or ax. The lucky couple who fell the tree is in charge of organizing the yunza for the following year.
Cultural Customs and Dances of Perú
The marinera is a dance that expresses Peruvian art and identity based on rhythm, elegance, strength, mischief and gallantry. Originating from a mixture of Spanish, indigenous and African cultures, this dance depicts a scene of falling in love between man and woman. Considered as Cultural Heritage of the Nation, the marinera is danced with a beautiful typical clothing and white scarves (in the case of the man also a hat).
The Dance of Scissors
Andean ritual expression that is performed mainly in the departments of Huancavelica and Ayacucho. It stands out for its originality, antiquity, symbolic value, and for the impressive acrobatics of its dancers or better known as ´Danzaq´. During the scissors dance, the man dances carrying two scissors called ‘female’ and ‘male’, the same ones that he shakes, sounds and maneuvers in the different sequences of the choreography.
The Diablada Puneña
The name of ´Diablada Puneña´ is due to the mask and devil costume used by the dancers, who represent through dance, the confrontation between the forces of good and evil, and in turn, combine traditional Andean rituals and Catholic religion (introduced by the Spanish). The diablada is a tradition in various Andean countries such as Bolivia and northern Chile, however, it gains a remarkable notoriety in the Festival of the Virgin of Candelaria in Puno, Peru.
It is the most popular dance in the Peruvian highlands. Of Inca origin, this dance varies its choreography according to the region of the Andes where it is practiced, being present in every festival. The dance is in pairs, however, the physical contact between them is minimal. The huayno is practiced with beautiful typical costumes of the Peruvian Andes, adopting various modalities according to local or regional traditions.
Cultural Customs and Rituals of Perú
Payment to Earth
In ancient Peru, the land was venerated as a source of life, this by depending exclusively on what it produced and provided for them. The bond between the Andean man and the earth is so close that ancestral rites are performed to ensure a good harvest and give thanks to mother earth. Carried out mainly in Cusco, Puno, Huaraz and Lambayeque, the payment to the land is made on the first day of August and continues throughout the month, since the peasants affirm that at this time the Pachamama is thirsty and hungry, being necessary satisfy her, nourish her and offer her the best foods to give her strength and energy.
Cultural Customs and Art of Perú
It is one of the most recognized artistic manifestations of the Andean area of ??Peru, representing thematic scenes such as local festivals and dances, religious motifs, rural views, agricultural work, among others. They are shaped like a rectangular box and are made on the basis of cedar, placing figures made on the basis of a boiled and ground potato paste mixed with plaster inside. In order to properly narrate their history, the Ayacucho altarpieces work their works with great meticulousness and passion, preserving their artisan techniques over the years.